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Islom banklari va ularning faoliyati

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1 Islom banklari va ularning faoliyati on Wed Apr 28, 2010 7:36 pm

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Ислом банклари фаолиятининг асосий тамойиллари
Ислом банклар фаолияти
Бугунги кунда ислом банкларида анъанавий банк операцияларининг, деярли, барчаси, яъни депозит, кредит, аккредитив, ҳисоб-китоб, тўлов операциялари амалга оширилади.

Бугунги кунда жаҳоннинг 40 дан зиёд мамлакатида ислом банклари фаолият юритмоқда. «СарИа...» халқаро банклар рейтинг агентлигининг 2000 йил маълумотларига кўра, ҳозирда ислом банкларининг активлари 160 млрд. доллардан ошиб кетган. Классик ғарб банк тизими ўзига хос инқирозни бошидан кечираётган бир пайтда шариат аҳкомлари асосида муваффақият билан иш юритаётган нисбатан ёш банклар тажрибасини ўрганиш муҳим аҳамият касб этади.
Банкир ва олим Крис Барлтон ўзининг «Ривожланаётган бозорлардаги банклар» асарида ислом банклари фаолиятини ҳар томонлама таҳлил қилган. Унинг таҳлилига кўра ислом банклари капитали йилига 10—15 фоиз суръат билан ўсмоқда. Бу эса молия соҳасида жуда юқори кўрсаткич ҳисобланади.
Кузатилаётган яна бир тенденция хусусида ҳам тўхталиб ўтиш жоиз. Сўнгги пайтларда кўпгина ғарб банклари дунёнинг турли мамлакатларида ўзларининг исломий шўъбаларини очмоқдалар. «Чейз Манхэттен», «Голдмэн Сакс», «Ай — Эн — Джи», «Номура Секьюритиз», «Джей Пи Морган» ва бошқалар шулар жумласидандир. Американинг машҳур банкларидан «Ситибанк» махсус ислом фондлари учун 1 млрд. доллар маблағ ажратиши ҳам молия бозорида ислом баньсларининг роли тобора ошиб бораётганлигидан далолатдир.
Бугунги кунда ислом банкларида анъанавий банк операцияларининг, деярли, барчаси, яъни депозит, кредит, аккредитив, ҳисоб-китоб, тўлов операциялари амалга оширилади. Улар саноат, аграр сектор, тижорат ва хизмат кўрсатиш соҳаларига катта маблағлар инвестиция қилмоқда.
Мазкур банклар қуйидаги тамойиллар асосида фаолият юритади.

1.Мушорака — шерикчилик асосида, яъни банк ва тадбиркор томонидан лойиҳани биргаликда амалга ошириш.

Ислом банкларида амалга ошириладиган банк операцияларининг мушорака турида банк молиялаштиришдан кўзлаган мақсад муайян фоиз олиш эмас, балки олиниши керак бўлган фойдада иштирок этишдир.

Мушоракада олинган фойда қуйидагича тақсимланади:

— фойданинг бир қисми иш ҳақи, бошқарув ёки лойиҳани амалга
оширишдаги бошқа иштироки учун шерикка ажратилади;

— фойданинг қолган қисми эса шериклар, яъни банк ва тадбиркор ўртасида лойиҳага тикилган маблағнинг нисбатига кўра пропорционал равишда тақсимланади,

Бироқ, шуни таъкидлаш жоизки, иш натижаси зарар билан якунланса, у ҳам шериклар ўртасида молиялаштиришдаги иштирокига кўра пропорционал равишда тақсимланади.
Тадбиркор лойиҳа ташаббускори бўлгани боис, менежментни ўз қўлига олади. Банк эса шартномага қатъий риоя қилган ҳолда лойиҳанинг бажарилишини назорат қилиб боради. Бу билан у ўзи ва шериги томонидан иш учун тикилган капитални ҳимоя қилади.
Мушорака бўйича капитал, албатта, икки томондан қўйилмоғи лозим. Лекин, шуни таъкидлаш жоизки, томонлар капиталининг тенг бўлиши шарт эмас. У турли нисбатда қўйилиши мумкин. Инвестиция қилинаётган маблағ эркин айланадиган бўлиши ва энг муҳими, унинг манбаи маълум бўлмоғи лозим. Мушорака шартномаси шерикларнинг бир-бирига бўлган тўлиқ ишончига асосланади. Ширкат маблағини бегона - учинчи шахс манфаатига ишлатиш ёки пул маблағларини бошқаришни учинчи шахсга, топшириш, шунингдек, компания маблағларини ўзининг шахсий маблағлари билан аралаштириб юбориш, умумий маблағни қарзга бериш ёки кафолат сифатида қўйиш мумкин эмас.
Банк талабгор тадбиркорлар ичидан шерик танлашда унинг нафақат профессионал маҳорати, балки унинг ахлоқий жиҳатларини ҳам инобатга олади.

2. Мудораба — ишонч асосида молиялаштириш. Ушбу банк операцияси турининг моҳияти шундаки, бунга кўра томонларнинг бири сармоя қўювчи ва иккинчи тараф иш юритувчи сифатида фаолият юритади. Демак, банк лойиҳани тўлиқ молиялаштирувчи бўлса, тадбиркор лойиҳани бевосита амалга оширувчи ҳисобланади.
Ислом банкларида амалга ошириладиган операцияларнинг мудораба тури мусулмон аҳоли ўртасида кенг тарқалган асосий хўжалик юритиш тамойилини ўзида акс эттиради. Муомаладан холи ёки бўш сармояга эга бўлган шахс уни ўзи хоҳлаган соҳага ёки бир пайтнинг ўзида турли соҳаларга йўналтириши мумкин. Бунда иккинчи тараф сармояни тасарруф этувчи, яъни лойиҳани амалга ошириш билан боғлиқ бўлган барча ташкилий ва бошқарув ишларига мутасадди шахс сифатида муомалага киришади.
Мудораба шартномасига кўра фойда тарафлар ўртасида олдиндан келишилган нисбатда тақсимланади.
Шариат нуқтаи назаридан мудораба молиявий воситаларни ишлаб чиқариш омилларига айлантиришнинг ҳалол ва қонуний йўли ҳисобланади. Бунда турли имкониятга эга бўлган хўжалик субъектлари бирикиб, ижтимоий фойда келтирувчи хайрли амал билан шуғулланадилар.
Мудорабада 3 та иқтисодий категория амал қилади: капитал, меҳнат, фойда. Бунда капитал пул ёки натурал шаклда бўлиши мумкин. Шартнома тузилаётган вақтда капиталнинг ҳажми ва манбаи маълум бўлиши, шунингдек, у бошқа банк операцияларига жалб этилмаслиги лозим.
Лойиҳани амалга ошириш учун сарфланган меҳнатга ҳақ фойда ҳисобидан тўланади. Мехнатга ҳақ тўлаб бўлингандан сўнг қолган маблағ соф фойда бўлиб, у шериклар ўртасида шартномада келишилган нисбатда бўлинади.
Худди мушорака сингари мудораба шартномасида ҳам лойиҳа банк томонидан синчковлик билан босқичма — босқич ўрганилади. Ушбу шартнома турида ҳам талабгорнинг нафақат молиявий аҳволи, балки унинг ахлоқий жиҳатларига ҳам асосий эътибор қаратилади.
Банк томонидан лойиҳанинг бажарилиши устидан доимий ва қаттиқ назорат ўрнатилади. Агар лойиҳани амалга оширувчи томонидан йўл қўйилган хато ёки эътиборсизлик оқибитида зарар кўриладиган бўлса сўзсиз, ушбу зарарни қоплаш иш юритувчи зиммасига юклатилади. Ана шундай вазиятларни назарда тутган ҳолда ислом банклари талабгордан маълум қийматга эга бўлган мулкни гаров сифатида қўйишни талаб қилиши мумкин.

3. Муробаҳа — тижорат операцияларини молиялаштириш. Ислом банклари опрецияларининг ушбу турида банк муайян тижорат операциясини молиялаштиради ва шартномада кўрсатилган фойдага эга бўлади. Бунда мижоз буюртмасига кўра товар банк томонидан харид қилинади. Сўнгра банк ушбу товарни шартномада кўрсатилган устама нарх билан мижозга сотади. Ушбу устама нарх банкнинг фойдаси ҳисобланади.

4. Ижор — Ижара операцияси. Банк операциясининг ижор турига асосан тадбиркор кўчмас мулк ёки ишлаб чиқариш воситасини банкдан ижарага олади. Ислом банкларининг ушбу операцияси бугунги кундаги анъанавий банкларнинг лизинг операцияларига ўхшаш бўлиб, у банк ва тадбиркор ўртасида тузилган шартномага асосан амалга оширилади.

5. Ижор ва иқтино — сотиб олиш ҳуқуқи бўлган ижара. Банк ва мижоз ўтрасида тузилган ушбу шартномага кўра, банк томонидан ижарага берилган кўчмас мулк ёки ишлаб чиқариш воситаси ижара муддати тугагач мижознинг мулкига айланади. Албатта, бунга қадар ижара объектининг келишилган нархи белгиланган муддат ичида тўлаб бўлинган бўлиши керак. Анъанавий банклар ҳам лизинг операцияларини амалга оширишда мижозга ижара муддати тугагач, сотиб олиш ҳуқуқини беради.

6. Закот — Моли нисобга етган давлатманд мусулмонлардаги камбағаллар ҳақи.

Банк томонидан закотларни жамлаш учун Закот уйи ташкил этилади. Ўз навбатида банк Закот уйига тушган маблағларни камбағаллар турмуш аҳволини яхшилашга, уларни ижтимоий жиҳатдан муҳофаза қилишга ва бошқа жамоат манфаатидаги ишларга сафарбар қилади. Закот уйлари закот тўловчилардан
ташқари барча турдаги хайрия ва эҳсонларни қабул қилиб, уларни аҳолининг муҳтож қатламларига етказиш учун хизмат қилади.

7. Ал-Қард ал—Ҳасан — фоизсиз ссуда ёки қарз.

Ислом банклари жисмоний ва юридик шахсларга маълум муддатга фоизсиз қарз бериши мумкин. Ушбу қарз асосан ижтимоий аҳамиятга молик лойиҳаларни амалга ошириш учун (масалан, завод, фабрика, йўл ва кўприклар қуриш) учун ажратилади. Айрим ҳолларда, маълум объектив сабабларга кўра қарздор шахс ёки ташкилот олинган маблағни қайтара олмаса, банк уни закот фонди ҳисобидан қоплаб бериши мукин.
Шундай қилиб ислом банклари ўз мижозларига юқоридаги операцияларни амалга ошириш учун уч хил фоизсиз ҳисоб (счёт)ни таклиф қилади:

1. Жорий ҳисоб. Бу фоиз ставкаси қўйилмайдиган чек ва жамғарма ҳисоби бўлиб, бунда банк мижозлардан қўйилма ва депозитлар бўйича хизмат кўрсатгани учун муайян тўлов олишга ҳақлидир. Агар мамлакатда инфляция жараёни кузатилаётган бўлса, ҳисоб рақамидаги пул маблағларига индексация асосида муайян миқдордаги пул компепсация сифатида тўланади.

2. Инвестицион ҳисоб. Ушбу ҳисоб тури бўйича мижозлар турли операциялар воситасида ўз маблағларини истиқболли лойиҳаларга инвестиция қилишлари мумкин. Албатга, бунда фойда ва зарар, юқорида айтиб ўтилгандек, банк ва мижоз ўртасида шартномага кўра тақсимланади.

3.Кредит хисоби. Ислом банклари мазкур ҳисоб орқали талабгор тадбиркорларга ҳамда аҳолининг муҳтож қатламларига фоизсиз қисқа муддатли ёки узоқ муддатли қарз (кредит) беради.

Бунда давлатманд мусулмонлар ўз эҳтиёжларидан ҳоли бўлган бўш маблағларини банкнинг кредит ҳисобига қисқа ёки узоқ муддатли депозит сифатида қўядилар. Банк ушбу маблағларни келишилган муддатда тўлиғича қайтаришни кафолатлайди. (Doctor Ali)
Manba

Foydalanuvchi profili http://iqtisod.uzbekforum.net

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Shari'a-compliant banking is fast moving from niche to mainstream, says Christopher Watts. But while continuing growth seems certain, challenges remain.

In January this year when the UAE's Sharjah Electricity and Water Authority (SEWA) needed cash to construct a power generation and desalination plant in the town of Hamriyah, it was Islamic finance that provided the answer: The utility raised USD 350 m by issuing its first ever sukuk – asset-backed bonds that comply with Shari'a, the Islamic legal code that prohibits interest.

By no means is SEWA alone in venturing into the Islamic capital markets. Corporate sukuk issuance leapt from USD 0.4 billion in 2000 to USD 24.5 billion in 2006, according to International Islamic Financial Market (IIFM), an industry association. Growth topped 122% in 2006 alone. "Islamic finance is no longer a niche market," says David Pace, CFO of Bahrain-based Unicorn Investment Bank (UIB), a Shari'a-compliant house. "It is increasingly a mainstream component of the global banking system."


To be sure, while the world's first Islamic bank was founded back in 1975, it is only in the last five years or so that Islamic finance has surged. Sniffing opportunity, conventional banks are now scrambling to set up Shari'a-compliant operations; and there has been a flurry of all-Islamic start-ups, from full-service investment banks to specialist advisory firms. Products have moved beyond lending, insurance and investment funds to include sukuk, hedge funds, currency swaps, and more.

Despite this boom – largely concentrated in the Middle East and South-East Asia – it's plain the Islamic finance industry still lacks global scale. Professor Rodney Wilson of the Institute for Middle Eastern and Islamic studies at Durham University in the UK estimates Islamic banking assets speak for less than 0.5% of the world's total. And worldwide sukuk debt outstanding amounts to perhaps USD 100 billion – just 0.1% of the global bond market.

Still, the signs point to a continuing surge in Islamic finance. Take economic growth: The Middle East and Asia are the two fastest-growing areas of the world. Kuwait Finance House expects 2007 GDP to rise 6.1% in the GCC and 6.2% in South-East Asia – in contrast to 2.4% in the EU and 2.2% in the US. Oil revenues lie behind the boom in the GCC; and in South-East Asia it is "the financial rigour adopted in the wake of the Asian currency crises," according to Douglas Clark Johnson, CEO of Calyx Financial, an alternative investment adviser based in New York.

Continuing growth in the GCC states and South-East Asia is fast creating a prosperous middle class among the regions' combined 410 m-strong Muslim population. As the ranks of the regions' newly well-off snap up credit to buy homes and cars, and invest in savings and retirement plans, demand for Shari'a-compliant retail financial services is set to accelerate. Behind such consumer products is a need for Islamic institutional finance too.

Consider, too, the vast cash-flows into the GCC region and South-East Asia: The IMF expects Indonesia and Malaysia alone to record a cumulative current account surplus of USD 132 billion for the five-year period to end-2008, in contrast to a deficit of USD 32 billion for the same period a decade earlier. And in the GCC, the surplus should reach USD 680 billion, versus a prior deficit of USD 8 billion.

Buoyed by this cash, regional governments are planning ambitious infrastructure programmes: Indonesia alone expects USD 110 billion of expenditure in the five years to end-2010; and consulting firm McKinsey estimates the GCC will invest USD 200 billion in the same period. Much of this spending is already being financed by sukuk – and the volume is set to balloon: Following its successful sukuk issue, SEWA hopes to raise another USD 2.7 billion. And in neighbouring Dubai, the electricity and water authority is eyeing a debut sukuk issue, with plans to raise USD 2.5 billion.

With ever-stronger foundations in the Middle East and Asia, Islamic finance is now starting to take hold in London, too. The UK's first standalone Shari'a-compliant bank opened its doors in 2004; two others have followed; another is on the way. (All are backed by Middle Eastern institutions.) And in April this year the London Stock Exchange listed its maiden sukuk, adding much-needed depth and liquidity to the market. Another milestone is in sight: the UK government is mulling its first sovereign sukuk issue, perhaps as soon as early-2008.

But challenges remain. If Islamic finance is to move deeper into mainstream global finance, the industry needs to improve transparency and foster credibility by harmonising standards and practices. Not least, Shari'a interpretation varies between regions and even institutions. Regulatory oversight need to be sharpened as well. These measures – and others – could be critical in broadening the appeal of Islamic finance and bridging the gap between Islamic and conventional financial systems.

The Islamic finance industry needs to work on innovation, too. Shari's-compliant products can be more complex than conventional ones because every transaction is backed a non-financial trade. Many instruments are still lacking, including corporate treasury and derivatives products. As UIB's Pace points out: "We [in the industry] need to change our perception of R&D, and view it as a core ingredient of success." But at the same time, innovation is hampered by the limited number of Islamic scholars able to vet financial products for Shari'a compliance.

For certain, industry practitioners are making progress. Earlier this year the International Capital Market Association and the IIFM agreed to develop standard contracts and common best practice for secondary trading of sukuk and other Islamic instruments. And it may help, too, that global banking giants are putting their weight behind Islamic finance. (Deutsche Bank, Barclays Capital and BNP Paribas are already among the world's top five issuers of sukuk.)

The question whether Islamic finance has reached critical mass remains open, of course. But Johnson of Calyx Financial is optimistic: "The tipping point may already have arrived," he ventures. Even if Johnson is wrong in his optimism, it seems unlikely history will prove him to have been very far wide of the mark.
Manba

Foydalanuvchi profili http://iqtisod.uzbekforum.net

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Islamic banking refers to a system of banking or banking activity that is consistent with the principles of Islamic law (Sharia) and its practical application through the development of Islamic economics. Sharia prohibits the payment or acceptance of interest fees for the lending and accepting of money respectively, (Riba, usury) for specific terms, as well as investing in businesses that provide goods or services considered contrary to its principles (Haraam, forbidden). While these principles were used as the basis for a flourishing economy in earlier times, it is only in the late 20th century that a number of Islamic banks were formed to apply these principles to private or semi-private commercial institutions within the Muslim community.

History of Islamic banking

Classical Islamic banking
Main article: Islamic economics in the world
Further information: Early reforms under Islam and Islamic capitalism

During the Islamic Golden Age, early forms of proto-capitalism and free markets were present in the Caliphate,[1] where an early market economy and an early form of mercantilism were developed between the 8th-12th centuries, which some refer to as "Islamic capitalism".[2] A vigorous monetary economy was created on the basis of the expanding levels of circulation of a stable, high-value currency (the dinar) and the integration of monetary areas that were previously independent.

A number of innovative concepts and techniques were applied in early Islamic banking, including bills of exchange, the first forms of partnership (mufawada) such as limited partnerships (mudaraba), and the earliest forms of capital (al-mal), capital accumulation (nama al-mal),[3] cheques, promissory notes,[4] trusts (see Waqf), startup companies,[5] transactional accounts, loaning, ledgers and assignments.[6] Organizational enterprises similar to corporations independent from the state also existed in the medieval Islamic world, while the agency institution was also introduced during that time.[7][8] Many of these early capitalist concepts were adopted and further advanced in medieval Europe from the 13th century onwards.[3]
Riba

The word "Riba" means excess, increase or addition, which correctly interpreted according to Shariah terminology, implies any excess compensation without due consideration (consideration does not include time value of money). The definition of riba in classical Islamic jurisprudence was "surplus value without counterpart", or "to ensure equivalency in real value", and that "numerical value was immaterial." During this period, gold and silver currencies were the benchmark metals that defined the value of all other materials being traded. Applying interest to the benchmark itself (ex natura sua) made no logical sense as its value remained constant relative to all other materials: these metals could be added to but not created (from nothing).

Applying interest was acceptable under some circumstances. Currencies that were based on guarantees by a government to honor the stated value (i.e. fiat currency) or based on other materials such as paper or base metals were allowed to have interest applied to them.[9] When base metal currencies were first introduced in the Islamic world, no jurist ever thought that "paying a debt in a higher number of units of this fiat money was riba" as they were concerned with the real value of money (determined by weight only) rather than the numerical value. For example, it was acceptable for a loan of 1000 gold dinars to be paid back as 1050 dinars of equal aggregate weight (i.e., the value in terms of weight had to be same because all makes of coins did not carry exactly similar weight).Modern Islamic banking

Interest-free banking seems to be of very recent origin. The earliest references to the reorganisation of banking on the basis of profit sharing rather than interest are found in Anwar Qureshi (1946), Naiem Siddiqi (1948) and Mahmud Ahmad (1952) in the late forties, followed by a more elaborate exposition by Mawdudi in 1950 (1961).2 Muhammad Hamidullah’s 1944, 1955, 1957 and 1962 writings too should be included in this category. They have all recognised the need for commercial banks and the evil of interest in that enterprise, and have proposed a banking system based on the concept of Mudarabha - profit and loss sharing.

In the next two decades interest-free banking attracted more attention, partly because of the political interest it created in Pakistan and partly because of the emergence of young Muslim economists. Works specifically devoted to this subject began to appear in this period. The first such work is that of Muhammad Uzair (1955). Another set of works emerged in the late sixties and early seventies. Abdullah al-Araby (1967), Nejatullah Siddiqi (1961, 1969), al-Najjar (1971) and Baqir al-Sadr (1961, 1974) were the main contributors.3

Early seventies saw the institutional involvement. Conference of the Finance Ministers of the Islamic Countries held in Karachi in 1970, the Egyptian study in 1972, First International Conference on Islamic Economics in Mecca in 1976, International Economic Conference in London in 1977 were the result of such involvement. The involvement of institutions and governments led to the application of theory to practice and resulted in the establishment of the first interest-free banks. The Islamic Development Bank, an inter-governmental bank established in 1975, was born of this process.[10]


The first modern experiment with Islamic banking was undertaken in Egypt under cover without projecting an Islamic image—for fear of being seen as a manifestation of Islamic fundamentalism that was anathema to the political regime. The pioneering effort, led by Ahmad Elnaggar, took the form of a savings bank based on profit-sharing in the Egyptian town of Mit Ghamr in 1963. This experiment lasted until 1967 (Ready 1981), by which time there were nine such banks in the country.[11]
In 1972, the Mit Ghamr Savings project became part of Nasr Social Bank which, till date, is still in business in Egypt. In 1975, the Islamic Development Bank was set-up with the mission to provide funding to projects in the member countries. The first modern commercial Islamic bank, Dubai Islamic Bank, opened its doors in 1975. In the early years, the products offered were basic and strongly founded on conventional banking products, but in the last few years the industry is starting to see strong development in new products and services.

Islamic Banking is growing at a rate of 10-15% per year and with signs of consistent future growth.[12] Islamic banks have more than 300 institutions spread over 51 countries, including the United States through companies such as the Michigan-based University Bank, as well as an additional 250 mutual funds that comply with Islamic principles. It is estimated that over US$822 billion worldwide sharia-compliant assets are managed according to The Economist.[13] This represents approximately 0.5% of total world estimated assets as of 2005.[14] According to CIMB Group Holdings, Islamic finance is the fastest-growing segment of the global financial system and sales of Islamic bonds may rise by 24 percent to $25 billion in 2010.[15]

The World Islamic Banking Conference, held annually in Bahrain since 1994, is internationally recognized as the largest and most significant gathering of Islamic banking and finance leaders in the world.[citation needed]

The Vatican has put forward the idea that "the principles of Islamic finance may represent a possible cure for ailing markets."[16]
Shariah-compliant assets reached about $400 billion throughout the world in 2009, according to Standard & Poor’s Ratings Services, and the potential market is $4 trillion.[17][18] Iran, Saudi Arabia and Malaysia have the biggest sharia-compliant assets.[19]

In 2009 Iranian banks accounted for about 40 percent of total assets of the world's top 100 Islamic banks. Bank Melli Iran, with assets of $45.5 billion came first, followed by Saudi Arabia's Al Rajhi Bank, Bank Mellat with $39.7 billion and Bank Saderat Iran with $39.3 billion.[20][21]
Principles

Islamic banking has the same purpose as conventional banking except that it operates in accordance with the rules of Shariah, known as Fiqh al-Muamalat (Islamic rules on transactions). The basic principle of Islamic banking is the sharing of profit and loss and the prohibition of riba (usury). Common terms used in Islamic banking include profit sharing (Mudharabah), safekeeping (Wadiah), joint venture (Musharakah), cost plus (Murabahah), and leasing (Ijarah).

In an Islamic mortgage transaction, instead of loaning the buyer money to purchase the item, a bank might buy the item itself from the seller, and re-sell it to the buyer at a profit, while allowing the buyer to pay the bank in installments. However, the bank's profit cannot be made explicit and therefore there are no additional penalties for late payment. In order to protect itself against default, the bank asks for strict collateral. The goods or land is registered to the name of the buyer from the start of the transaction. This arrangement is called Murabaha. Another approach is EIjara wa EIqtina, which is similar to real estate leasing. Islamic banks handle loans for vehicles in a similar way (selling the vehicle at a higher-than-market price to the debtor and then retaining ownership of the vehicle until the loan is paid).

An innovative approach applied by some banks for home loans, called Musharaka al-Mutanaqisa, allows for a floating rate in the form of rental. The bank and borrower form a partnership entity, both providing capital at an agreed percentage to purchase the property. The partnership entity then rents out the property to the borrower and charges rent. The bank and the borrower will then share the proceeds from this rent based on the current equity share of the partnership. At the same time, the borrower in the partnership entity also buys the bank's share of the property at agreed installments until the full equity is transferred to the borrower and the partnership is ended. If default occurs, both the bank and the borrower receive a proportion of the proceeds from the sale of the property based on each party's current equity. This method allows for floating rates according to the current market rate such as the BLR (base lending rate), especially in a dual-banking system like in Malaysia.

There are several other approaches used in business transactions. Islamic banks lend their money to companies by issuing floating rate interest loans. The floating rate of interest is pegged to the company's individual rate of return. Thus the bank's profit on the loan is equal to a certain percentage of the company's profits. Once the principal amount of the loan is repaid, the profit-sharing arrangement is concluded. This practice is called Musharaka. Further, Mudaraba is venture capital funding of an entrepreneur who provides labor while financing is provided by the bank so that both profit and risk are shared. Such participatory arrangements between capital and labor reflect the Islamic view that the borrower must not bear all the risk/cost of a failure, resulting in a balanced distribution of income and not allowing lender to monopolize the economy.

Islamic banking is restricted to Islamically acceptable transactions, which exclude those involving alcohol, pork, gambling, etc. The aim of this is to engage in only ethical investing, and moral purchasing.

In theory, Islamic banking is an example of full-reserve banking, with banks achieving a 100% reserve ratio.[22] However, in practice, this is not the case, and no examples of 100 per cent reserve banking are observed.[23]

Islamic banks have grown recently in the Muslim world but are a very small share of the global banking system. Micro-lending institutions founded by Muslims, notably Grameen Bank, use conventional lending practices and are popular in some Muslim nations, especially Bangladesh, but some do not consider them true Islamic banking. However, Muhammad Yunus, the founder of Grameen Bank and microfinance banking, and other supporters of microfinance, argue that the lack of collateral and lack of excessive interest in micro-lending is consistent with the Islamic prohibition of usury (riba).[24][25]
Shariah Advisory Council/Consultant

Islamic banks and banking institutions that offer Islamic banking products and services (IBS banks) are required to establish a Shariah Supervisory Board (SSB) to advise them and to ensure that the operations and activities of the bank comply with Shariah principles. On the other hand, there are also those who believe that no form of banking can ever comply with the Shariah.[26]

In Malaysia, the National Shariah Advisory Council, which additionally set up at Bank Negara Malaysia (BNM), advises BNM on the Shariah aspects of the operations of these institutions and on their products and services. (See: Islamic banking in Malaysia). In Indonesia the Ulama Council serves a similar purpose.

A number of Shariah advisory firms (either standalone or subsidiaries of larger financial groups) have now emerged to offer Shariah advisory services to the institutions offering Islamic financial services. Issue of independence, impartiality and conflicts of interest have also been recently voiced. The WDIBF World Database for Islamic Banking and Finance has been developed to provide information about all the websites related to this type of banking [27].
Bai' al 'inah (sale and buy-back agreement)

Bai' al inah is a financing facility with the underlying buy and sell transactions between the financier and the customer. The financier buys an asset from the customer on spot basis. The price paid by the financier constitutes the disbursement under the facility. Subsequently the asset is sold to the customer on a deferred-payment basis and the price is payable in instalments. The second sale serves to create the obligation on the part of the customer under the facility. There are differences of opinion amongst the scholars on the permissibility of Bai' al 'inah, however this is practised in Malaysia and the like jurisdictions.[28][29]
Bai' bithaman ajil (deferred payment sale)

This concept refers to the sale of goods on a deferred payment basis at a price, which includes a profit margin agreed to by both parties. Like Bai' al 'inah, this concept is also used under an Islamic financing facility. Interest payment can be avoided as the customer is paying the sale price which is not the same as interest charged on a loan.
Bai' muajjal (credit sale)

Literally bai' muajjal means a credit sale. Technically, it is a financing technique adopted by Islamic banks that takes the form of murabahah muajjal. It is a contract in which the bank earns a profit margin on the purchase price and allows the buyer to pay the price of the commodity at a future date in a lump sum or in installments. It has to expressly mention cost of the commodity and the margin of profit is mutually agreed. The price fixed for the commodity in such a transaction can be the same as the spot price or higher or lower than the spot price. Bai' muajjal is also called a deferred-payment sale.
Musharakah

Musharakah (joint venture) is an agreement between two or more partners, whereby each partner provides funds to be used in a venture. Profits made are shared between the partners according to the invested capital. In case of loss, each partner loses capital in the same ratio. If the Bank provides capital, the same conditions apply. It is this financial risk, according to the Shariah, that justifies the bank's claim to part of the profit. Each partner may or may not participate in carrying out the business. A working partner gets a greater profit share compared to a sleeping (non-working) partner. The difference between Musharaka and Madharaba is that, in Musharaka, each partner contributes some capital, whereas in Madharaba, one partner, e.g. a financial institution, provides all the capital and the other partner, the entrepreneur, provides no capital. Note that Musharaka and Madharaba commonly overlap.[30]
Mudarabah
Main article: Mudarabah

"Mudarabah" is a special kind of partnership where one partner gives money to another for investing it in a commercial enterprise. The investment comes from the first partner who is called "rabb-ul-mal", while the management and work is an exclusive responsibility of the other, who is called "mudarib".

The Mudarabah (Profit Sharing) is a contract, with one party providing 100 percent of the capital and the other party providing its specialist knowledge to invest the capital and manage the investment project. Profits generated are shared between the parties according to a pre-agreed ratio. Compared to Musharaka, in a Mudaraba only the lender of the money has to take losses.
Murabahah
Main article: Murabahah

This concept refers to the sale of goods at a price, which includes a profit margin agreed to by both parties. The purchase and selling price, other costs, and the profit margin must be clearly stated at the time of the sale agreement. The bank is compensated for the time value of its money in the form of the profit margin. This is a fixed-income loan for the purchase of a real asset (such as real estate or a vehicle), with a fixed rate of profit determined by the profit margin. The bank is not compensated for the time value of money outside of the contracted term (i.e., the bank cannot charge additional profit on late payments); however, the asset remains as a mortgage with the bank until the default is settled.

This type of transaction is similar to rent-to-own arrangements for furniture or appliances that are common in North American stores.
Musawamah

Musawamah is the negotiation of a selling price between two parties without reference by the seller to either costs or asking price. While the seller may or may not have full knowledge of the cost of the item being negotiated, they are under no obligation to reveal these costs as part of the negotiation process. This difference in obligation by the seller is the key distinction between Murabaha and Musawamah with all other rules as described in Murabaha remaining the same. Musawamah is the most common type of trading negotiation seen in Islamic commerce.
Bai salam

Bai salam means a contract in which advance payment is made for goods to be delivered later on. The seller undertakes to supply some specific goods to the buyer at a future date in exchange of an advance price fully paid at the time of contract. It is necessary that the quality of the commodity intended to be purchased is fully specified leaving no ambiguity leading to dispute. The objects of this sale are goods and cannot be gold, silver, or currencies based on these metals. Barring this, Bai Salam covers almost everything that is capable of being definitely described as to quantity, quality, and workmanship.
Basic features and conditions of Salam
The transaction is considered Salam if the buyer has paid the purchase price to the seller in full at the time of sale. This is necessary so that the buyer can show that they are not entering into debt with a second party in order to eliminate the debt with the first party, an act prohibited under Sharia. The idea of Salam is to provide a mechanism that ensures that the seller has the liquidity they expected from entering into the transaction in the first place. If the price were not paid in full, the basic purpose of the transaction would have been defeated. Muslim jurists are unanimous in their opinion that full payment of the purchase price is key for Salam to exist. Imam Malik is also of the opinion that the seller may defer accepting the funds from the buyer for two or three days, but this delay should not form part of the agreement.
Salam can be effected in those commodities only the quality and quantity of which can be specified exactly. The things whose quality or quantity is not determined by specification cannot be sold through the contract of salam. For example, precious stones cannot be sold on the basis of salam, because every piece of precious stones is normally different from the other either in its quality or in its size or weight and their exact specification is not generally possible.
Salam cannot be effected on a particular commodity or on a product of a particular field or farm. For example, if the seller undertakes to supply the wheat of a particular field, or the fruit of a particular tree, the salam will not be valid, because there is a possibility that the crop of that particular field or the fruit of that tree is destroyed before delivery, and, given such possibility, the delivery remains uncertain. The same rule is applicable to every commodity the supply of which is not certain.
It is necessary that the quality of the commodity (intended to be purchased through salam) is fully specified leaving no ambiguity which may lead to a dispute. ALl the possible details in this respect must be expressly mentioned.
It is also necessary that the quantity of the commodity is agreed upon in unequivocal terms. If the commodity is quantified in weights according to the usage of its traders, its weight must be determined, and if it is quantified through measures, its exact measure should be known. What is normally weighed cannot be quantified in measures and vice versa.
The exact date and place of delivery must be specified in the contract.
Salam cannot be effected in respect of things which must be delivered at spot. For example, if gold is purchased in exchange of silver, it is necessary, according to Shari'ah, that the delivery of both be simultaneous. Here, salam cannot work. Similarly, if wheat is bartered for barley, the simultaneous delivery of both is necessary for the validity of sale. Therefore the contract of salam in this case is not allowed.
Hibah (gift)

This is a token given voluntarily by a debtor to a creditor in return for a loan. Hibah usually arises in practice when Islamic banks voluntarily pay their customers a 'gift' on savings account balances, representing a portion of the profit made by using those savings account balances in other activities.

It is important to note that while it appears similar to interest, and may, in effect, have the same outcome, Hibah is a voluntary payment made (or not made) at the bank's discretion, and cannot be 'guaranteed.' However, the opportunity of receiving high Hibah will draw in customers' savings, providing the bank with capital necessary to create its profits; if the ventures are profitable, then some of those profits may be gifted back to its customers as Hibah.[31]
Ijarah

Ijarah means lease, rent or wage. Generally, Ijarah concept means selling the benefit of use or service for a fixed price or wage. Under this concept, the Bank makes available to the customer the use of service of assets / equipments such as plant, office automation, motor vehicle for a fixed period and price.
Advantages of Ijarah

Ijarah provides the following advantages to the Lessee:

Ijarah conserves the Lessee' capital since it allows up to 100% financing.

Ijarah gives the Lessee the right to access the equipment on payment of the first installment. This is important as it is the access and use (and not ownership) of equipment that generates income.

Ijarah arrangements aid corporate planning and budgeting by allowing the negotiation of flexible terms

Ijarah is not considered Debt Financing so it does not appear on the Lessee' Balance Sheet as a Liability. This method of "off-balance-sheet" financing means that it is not included in the Debt Ratios used by bankers to determine financing limits. This allows the Lessee to enter into other lease financing arrangements without impacting his overall debt rating.

All payments towards Ijarah contracts are treated as operating expenses and are therefore fully tax-deductible. Leasing thus offers tax-advantages to for-profit operations.

Many types of equipment (i.e computers) become obsolete before the end of their actual economic life. Ijarah contracts allow the transfer of risk from the Lesse to the Lessor in exchange for a higher lease rate. This higher rate can be viewed as insurance against obsolescence.

If the equipment is used for a relatively short period of time, it may be more profitable to lease than to buy.

If the equipment is used for a long period but has a very poor resale value, leasing avoids having to account for and depreciate the equipment under normal accounting principles.
Ijarah thumma al bai' (hire purchase)

Parties enter into contracts that come into effect serially, to form a complete lease/ buyback transaction. The first contract is an Ijarah that outlines the terms for leasing or renting over a fixed period, and the second contract is a Bai that triggers a sale or purchase once the term of the Ijarah is complete. For example, in a car financing facility, a customer enters into the first contract and leases the car from the owner (bank) at an agreed amount over a specific period. When the lease period expires, the second contract comes into effect, which enables the customer to purchase the car at an agreed to price.

The bank generates a profit by determining in advance the cost of the item, its residual value at the end of the term and the time value or profit margin for the money being invested in purchasing the product to be leased for the intended term. The combining of these three figures becomes the basis for the contract between the Bank and the client for the initial lease contract.

This type of transaction is similar to the contractum trinius, a legal maneuver used by European bankers and merchants during the Middle Ages to sidestep the Church's prohibition on interest bearing loans. In a contractum, two parties would enter into three concurrent and interrelated legal contracts, the net effect being the paying of a fee for the use of money for the term of the loan. The use of concurrent interrelated contracts is also prohibited under Shariah Law.
Ijarah-wal-iqtina

A contract under which an Islamic bank provides equipment, building, or other assets to the client against an agreed rental together with a unilateral undertaking by the bank or the client that at the end of the lease period, the ownership in the asset would be transferred to the lessee. The undertaking or the promise does not become an integral part of the lease contract to make it conditional. The rentals as well as the purchase price are fixed in such manner that the bank gets back its principal sum along with profit over the period of lease.
Musharakah (joint venture)

Musharakah is a relationship between two parties or more, of whom contribute capital to a business, and divide the net profit and loss pro rata. This is often used in investment projects, letters of credit, and the purchase or real estate or property. In the case of real estate or property, the bank assess an imputed rent and will share it as agreed in advance.[30] All providers of capital are entitled to participate in management, but not necessarily required to do so. The profit is distributed among the partners in pre-agreed ratios, while the loss is borne by each partner strictly in proportion to respective capital contributions. This concept is distinct from fixed-income investing (i.e. issuance of loans).[citation needed]
Qard hassan/ Qardul hassan (good loan/benevolent loan)

This is a loan extended on a goodwill basis, and the debtor is only required to repay the amount borrowed. However, the debtor may, at his or her discretion, pay an extra amount beyond the principal amount of the loan (without promising it) as a token of appreciation to the creditor. In the case that the debtor does not pay an extra amount to the creditor, this transaction is a true interest-free loan. Some Muslims consider this to be the only type of loan that does not violate the prohibition on riba, since it is the one type of loan that truly does not compensate the creditor for the time value of money.[32]
Sukuk (Islamic bonds)
Main article: Sukuk

Sukuk is the Arabic name for a financial certificate but can be seen as an Islamic equivalent of bond. However, fixed-income, interest-bearing bonds are not permissible in Islam. Hence, Sukuk are securities that comply with the Islamic law (Shariah) and its investment principles, which prohibit the charging or paying of interest. Financial assets that comply with the Islamic law can be classified in accordance with their tradability and non-tradability in the secondary markets.
Takaful (Islamic insurance)
Main article: Takaful

Takaful is an alternative form of cover that a Muslim can avail himself against the risk of loss due to misfortunes. Takaful is based on the idea that what is uncertain with respect to an individual may cease to be uncertain with respect to a very large number of similar individuals. Insurance by combining the risks of many people enables each individual to enjoy the advantage provided by the law of large numbers. See Takaful for details.
Wadiah (safekeeping)

In Wadiah, a bank is deemed as a keeper and trustee of funds. A person deposits funds in the bank and the bank guarantees refund of the entire amount of the deposit, or any part of the outstanding amount, when the depositor demands it. The depositor, at the bank's discretion, may be rewarded with Hibah (see above) as a form of appreciation for the use of funds by the bank.
Wakalah (power of attorney)

This occurs when a person appoints a representative to undertake transactions on his/her behalf, similar to a power of attorney.
Islamic equity funds

Islamic investment equity funds market is one of the fastest-growing sectors within the Islamic financial system. Currently, there are approximately 100 Islamic equity funds worldwide. The total assets managed through these funds currently exceed US$5 billion and is growing by 12–15% per annum. With the continuous interest in the Islamic financial system, there are positive signs that more funds will be launched. Some Western majors have just joined the fray or are thinking of launching similar Islamic equity products.

Despite these successes, this market has seen a record of poor marketing as emphasis is on products and not on addressing the needs of investors. Over the last few years, quite a number of funds have closed down. Most of the funds tend to target high net worth individuals and corporate institutions, with minimum investments ranging from US$50,000 to as high as US$1 million. Target markets for Islamic funds vary, some cater for their local markets, e.g., Malaysia and Gulf-based investment funds. Others clearly target the Middle East and Gulf regions, neglecting local markets and have been accused of failing to serve Muslim communities.

Since the launch of Islamic equity funds in the early 1990s, there has been the establishment of credible equity benchmarks by Dow Jones Islamic market index (Dow Jones Indexes pioneered Islamic investment indexing in 1999) and the FTSE Global Islamic Index Series. The Web site failaka.com monitors the performance of Islamic equity funds and provide a comprehensive list of the Islamic funds worldwide.
Islamic derivatives
See also: Financial derivatives

With help of Bahrain-based International Islamic Financial Market and New York-based International Swaps and Derivatives Association, global standards for Islamic derivatives were set in 2010. The “Hedging Master Agreement” provides a structure under which institutions can trade derivatives such as profit-rate and currency swaps.[33]
Islamic laws on trading

The Qur'an prohibits gambling (games of chance involving money) and insuring ones' health or property (also considered a game of chance). The hadith, in addition to prohibiting gambling (games of chance), also prohibits bayu al-gharar (trading in risk, where the Arabic word gharar is taken to mean "risk" or excessive uncertainty).

The Hanafi madhab (legal school) in Islam defines gharar as "that whose consequences are hidden." The Shafi legal school defined gharar as "that whose nature and consequences are hidden" or "that which admits two possibilities, with the less desirable one being more likely." The Hanbali school defined it as "that whose consequences are unknown" or "that which is undeliverable, whether it exists or not." Ibn Hazm of the Zahiri school wrote "Gharar is where the buyer does not know what he bought, or the seller does not know what he sold." The modern scholar of Islam, Professor Mustafa Al-Zarqa, wrote that "Gharar is the sale of probable items whose existence or characteristics are not certain, due to the risky nature that makes the trade similar to gambling." Other modern scholars, such as Dr. Sami al-Suwailem, have used Game Theory to try and reach a more measured definition of Gharar, defining it as "a zero-sum game with unequal payoffs"[34].

There are a number of hadith that forbid trading in gharar, often giving specific examples of gharhar transactions (e.g., selling the birds in the sky or the fish in the water, the catch of the diver, an unborn calf in its mother's womb etc.). Jurists have sought many complete definitions of the term. They also came up with the concept of yasir (minor risk); a financial transaction with a minor risk is deemed to be halal (permissible) while trading in non-minor risk (bayu al-ghasar) is deemed to be haram.[35]

What gharar is, exactly, was never fully decided upon by the Muslim jurists. This was mainly due to the complication of having to decide what is and is not a minor risk. Derivatives instruments (such as stock options) have only become common relatively recently. Some Islamic banks do provide brokerage services for stock trading.
Microfinance

Microfinance is a key concern for Muslims states and recently Islamic banks also. Microfinance is ideologically compatible with Islamic finance[36], capable of Shariah-compliancy, and possesses a sizeable potential market[37]. Islamic microfinance tools can enhance security of tenure and contribute to transformation of lives of the poor.[38] The use of interest found in conventional microfinance products and services can easily be avoided by creating microfinance hybrids delivered on the basis of the Islamic contracts of mudaraba, musharaka, and murabaha [39]. Already, several microfinance institutions (MFIs) such as FINCA Afghanistan have introduced Islamic-compliant financial instruments that accommodate sharia criteria.
Controversy

In Islamabad, Pakistan, on June 16, 2004: Members of leading Islamist political party in Pakistan, the Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal (MMA) party, staged a protest walkout from the National Assembly of Pakistan against what they termed derogatory remarks by a minority member on interest banking:

Taking part in the budget debate, M.P. Bhindara, a minority MNA [Member of the National Assembly]...referred to a decree by an Al-Azhar University's scholar that bank interest was not un-Islamic. He said without interest the country could not get foreign loans and could not achieve the desired progress. A pandemonium broke out in the house over his remarks as a number of MMA members...rose from their seats in protest and tried to respond to Mr Bhindara's observations. However, they were not allowed to speak on a point of order that led to their walkout.... Later, the opposition members were persuaded by a team of ministers...to return to the house...the government team accepted the right of the MMA to respond to the minority member's remarks.... Sahibzada Fazal Karim said the Council of Islamic ideology had decreed that interest in all its forms was haram in an Islamic society. Hence, he said, no member had the right to negate this settled issue.[40]

Some Islamic banks charge for the time value of money, the common economic definition of Interest (Riba). These institutions are criticized in some quarters of the Muslim community for their lack of strict adherence to Sharia.

The concept of Ijarah is used by some Islamic Banks (the Islami Bank in Bangladesh, for example) to apply to the use of money instead of the more accepted application of supplying goods or services using money as a vehicle. A fixed fee is added to the amount of the loan that must be paid to the bank regardless if the loan generates a return on investment or not. The reasoning is that if the amount owed does not change over time, it is profit and not interest and therefore acceptable under Sharia.

Islamic banks are also criticized by some for not applying the principle of Mudarabah in an acceptable manner. Where Mudarabah stresses the sharing of risk, critics point out that these banks are eager to take part in profit-sharing but they have little tolerance for risk. To some in the Muslim community, these banks may be conforming to the strict legal interpretations of Sharia but avoid recognizing the intent that made the law necessary in the first place.[citation needed]

The majority of Islamic banking clients are found in the Gulf states and in developed countries. With 60% of Muslims living in poverty, Islamic banking is of little benefit to the general population. The majority of financial institutions that offer Islamic banking services are majority owned by Non-Muslims. With Muslims working within these organizations being employed in the marketing of these services and having little input into the actual day to day management, the veracity of these institutions and their services are viewed with suspicion. One Malaysian Bank offering Islamic based investment funds was found to have the majority of these funds invested in the gaming industry; the managers administering these funds were non Muslim.[40] These types of stories contribute to the general impression within the Muslim populace that Islamic banking is simply another means for banks to increase profits through growth of deposits and that only the rich derive benefits from implementation of Islamic Banking principles.

Notes

^ The Cambridge economic history of Europe, p. 437. Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0521087090.
^ Subhi Y. Labib (1969), "Capitalism in Medieval Islam", The Journal of Economic History 29 (1), p. 79-96 [81, 83, 85, 90, 93, 96].
^ a b Jairus Banaji (2007), "Islam, the Mediterranean and the rise of capitalism", Historical Materialism 15 (1), pp. 47–74, Brill Publishers.
^ Robert Sabatino Lopez, Irving Woodworth Raymond, Olivia Remie Constable (2001), Medieval Trade in the Mediterranean World: Illustrative Documents, Columbia University Press, ISBN 0231123574.
^ Timur Kuran (2005), "The Absence of the Corporation in Islamic Law: Origins and Persistence", American Journal of Comparative Law 53, pp. 785–834 [798–9].
^ Subhi Y. Labib (1969), "Capitalism in Medieval Islam", The Journal of Economic History 29 (1), pp. 79–96 [92–3].
^ Said Amir Arjomand (1999), "The Law, Agency, and Policy in Medieval Islamic Society: Development of the Institutions of Learning from the Tenth to the Fifteenth Century", Comparative Studies in Society and History 41, pp. 263–93. Cambridge University Press.
^ Samir Amin (1978), "The Arab Nation: Some Conclusions and Problems", MERIP Reports 68, pp. 3–14 [8, 13].
^ (Badr 1989, p. 424)
^ 4.1 Historical development
^ [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]
^ [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] Islamic Banks and Financial Stability: An Empirical Analysis pg. 5
^ [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]
^ [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]
^ [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]
^ Lorenzo Totaro (2009-03-04). "Vatican Says Islamic Finance May Help Western Banks in Crisis". Bloomberg L.P.. Retrieved 2009-04-13.
^ [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]
^ [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]
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^ [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]
^ [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]
^ Gabriel Rozenberg, Nobel prizewinner using micro-credit for macro benefit, The Times, December 16, 2006.
^ Zeeshan Hasan, The Redefinition of Islamic Economics, The Daily Star, August 27th, 1994.
^ [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]
^ World Database for Islamic Banking and Finance
^ [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]
^ [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]
^ a b Nomani, Farhad; Rahnema, Ali. (1994). Islamic Economic Systems. New Jersey: Zed books limited. pp. 99–101. ISBN 1-85649-058-0.
^ "Learn more about Islamic Banking - Returns on deposits are competitive". RHB Banking Group. 2006-05-17. Retrieved 2009-03-26.
^ [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]
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^ Sait, 2006, p.175
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^ a b [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]

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